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Biology

  Biology Labs INB Nomenclature  Student Page 

Biology is the study of all living things.

Lemur at Animal Kingdom, Orlando, FL

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Mammalia

Order:Primates

Suborder:Strepsirrhini

Infraorder: Lemuriformes

 

Watch Promo Clip of "Planet Earth"

American Society of Plant Taxonomists
Glossary of Scientific Terms
 Organisms and Populations
 Animal Kingdom
Human Biology
Pathfinder Science
Asexual Reproduction
Kingdoms

Red Sea Reefs

Biodiversity Conservation
Mendelian Genetics
 ScienceNet Q & A
Biology and Evolutionary Theory
Microbes in the News
SciCentral
Biological Science
 Microbes of the Month

Spider Stuff

Biology4kids

 Microbial Zoo

Text

Cell Biology
Microscope
The Biology Project

Cellular Respiration & Fermentation

Migration

The Science Index

Classifying Critters
Mitosis & Meiosis
Virtual Biology

DNA Fingerprinting

 Mr. Lubey's BioHelp
Virtual Labs

Ecoli

Natural History

 
Elephant Voices

Neuroscience

Web Resources

 

First... The Basics

Writing in Science

Because society relies heavily on written expression and printed material, it is important for you to posses effective writing skills.  You will be expected to:

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Keep good records of all investigations and activities

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Record notes from text material and lectures/discussions

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Submit complete lab reports (format provided by me) following the scientific method

Scientific Method

graphical flowchart of the scientific method from: http://whyfiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/educators/tools/pbl/scientific_method.html

NASA SCIence Files

Introduction to Chemistry

image63.gif (3485 bytes)

pH Tutorial

The Cell


Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts (for photosynthesis) and lack of centrioles.
Animal cells have cell membranes rather than a cell wall and have no chloroplasts.


 

 

Cell Theory
1.  All organisms are composed of one or more cells, and the life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells.

2.  Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.

3.  Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.

brightfield

 

3D  Cell

Cellular Transport

Animal Cell Mitosis

Cell Q & A

Cells

Osmosis

Cell-Tissue-Body Explorer

The Biology Place

   

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle

Respiration

Where  In cholorophyll-bearing cells 
When:  In the presence of light 
Input:  Carbon dioxide and water 
Output: Reduced carbon compounds, oxygen, and water 
Energy sources: Light 
Energy result: Energy stored 
Chemical reaction: Reduction of carbon compounds 
Energy carrier: NADP 

Where: In all cells 
When: All the time 
Input: Reduced carbon compounds and oxygen 
Output: Carbon dioxide and water 
Energy Sources: Chemical bonds 
Energy Result: Energy released 
Chemical reaction: Oxidation of carbon compounds 
Energy Carriers: NAD and FAD

 

The Krebs Cycle:

NAD, FAD and ATP are all involved in the Krebs Cycle- a process for energy and metabolism. 
NAD is an electron carrier, FAD is an electron acceptor, and ATP is the energy currency of the cell.

 

Protein Synthesis

DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins
 

This process can be divided into two parts:

 Transcription
Before the synthesis of a protein begins, the corresponding RNA molecule is produced by RNA transcription. One strand of the DNA double helix is used as a template by the RNA polymerase to synthesize a messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. During this step, mRNA goes through different types of maturation including one called splicing when the non-coding sequences are eliminated. The coding mRNA sequence can be described as a unit of three nucleotides called a codon.

Translation
The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG) that is recognized only by the initiator tRNA. The ribosome proceeds to the elongation phase of protein synthesis. During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon. The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptidic sequences dictated by DNA and represented by mRNA. At the end, a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating translation and releasing the complete polypeptide from the ribosome.

 

Animation

Genetic  Code 

DNA from the Beginning Genetics
DNA & Protein Synthesis Genetics Wizard
  Prions: Killer Proteins

History of the Microscope

The invention of the microscope has allowed us to investigate a whole new world of tiny objects.

Microscopes magnify and resolve, which tend to be mistaken as the same but are two very different things.

Magnification  \mag-ne-fe-'ka-shen\ n 1. apparent enlargement of an object 2. the ratio of image size to actual size
A magnification of "100x" means that the image is 100 times bigger than the actual object.

Resolution  \rez-e-loo-shen\ n 1. clarity, sharpness 2. the ability of a microscope to show two very close points separately              

resolution example below

2D structured illumination figure


 

Scientific Photography through the Microscope

Prepared  Specimen Slides

 

Recording Field of View

 

 

Orientation of sections for the study of wood anatomy.

(A) Transverse; (B) longitudinal; (C) tangential.

 

http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/image-gallery/show/PL0183/

Detail of a mature vascular bundle in maize

Lilac leaf

  Monocot & Dicot Imagery
  Plant Structure

 

Mitosis

 

Cell Cycle - Mitosis Tutorial Onion Root Tip
Control of the Cell Cycle

Tour of Basics

Microbiology Flash Cards Whitefish Mitosis

 

Meiosis

In Meiosis I, chromosomes in a diploid cell re-segregate, producing four haploid daughter cells. It is this step in Meiosis that generates genetic diversity.

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis. However, there is no "S" phase. The chromatids of each chromosome are no longer identical because of recombination. Meiosis II separates the chromatids producing two daughter cells each with 23 chromosomes (haploid), and each chromosome has only one chromatid.

 

Major differences between mitosis and meiosis

1. Number of cell divisions and products.
       
bulletmitosis - one cell division resulting in two daughter cells
bulletmeiosis - two cell divisions resulting in four products of meiosis
 

2. Ploidy (# chromosome sets) per nucleus.
  
bulletmitosis - 2N to 2N
bulletmeiosis - 2N to N to N

3. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes.

 
bulletmitosis - no pairing
bulletmeiosis - pairing at zygotene of prophase I

4. Exchange of genetic material between synapsed homologous chromosomes.
       
bulletmitosis - does not occur
bulletmeiosis - occurs at pachytene of prophase I (first visible at diplotene)

5. Timing of division of centromeres.
       
bulletmitosis - occurs at anaphase
bulletmeiosis - occurs at anaphase II but not at anaphase I

6. Genetic variation.
       
bulletmitosis - conservative process; does not lead to genetic variation
bulletmeiosis -  leads to increased genetic variation following recombination (crossing-over)

Meiosis Tutorial

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

1774-1829

French Botanist

Among the first scientists to recognize

living things have changed over time

all species were descended from other species

He also recognized organisms were somehow adapted to their environments

 

Charles Darwin

Father of Evolutionary Biology

1809 - 1882

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British Naturalist

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On The Origin of Species
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Proposed a mechanism for evolution

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Natural Selection

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Presented evidence demonstrating that the process of evolution has been taking place for millions of years
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Continues in all living things

 

Evolution: Great Transformations

 

 

Gregor Mendel

Father of Genetics

1822 - 1884

 

Mendelian Genetics

Postulates:

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Unit Factors ( genes) come in pairs

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Dominance vs. recessiveness

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Segregation of alleles into gametes of equal frequency

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Independent assortment of alleles from different gene pairs into gametes

Mendel did his research on the garden pea because it was easy to breed, quick turn around, and it was easy to see the changes in generations.  Mendel's work went unnoticed for many years until 3 scientists came across his work in the early 1900's.  At that time Mendel was given the name "Father of Genetics" for his major contribution to the field of genetics.

See Genetics Page

 

Autobiography

Introduction to M.G.

Chi-Square Test 

Mendel's Original Paper

Gene Interations

Mendelian Genetics

Genetics Wizard

Mendelism Overview

GenScope

Mouse House

Hardy-Weinberg

Practice Problems

Heredity

 

 

Corn Snake

Pantherophis guttatus

(formally known as: Elaphe guttata)

Mendelism Through Corn Snake Genetics

Reptile Research

 

Fruit Fly

Drosophila melanogaster

Exploratorium.edu Exploratorium.edu  Exploratorium.edu

Turning genes on and off

Watch the full episode. See more NOVA.

Fruit Fly

HHMI Research

 

 Space Research

 

Pedigree Charts

This is how we trace inherited traits

click for source

 

click for more information about pedigree

"When boy III-1 (outlined in blue) died suddenly at a football game at the age of 19, his mother II-2, brother and sisters, friends and doctors were confused. An autopsy showed that the young athelete had died from familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), an inherited disease of the heart muscle. On doing the pedigree, the dead boys father II-1 had died of heart failure at an early age as had his aunt II-4 and paternal grandfather I-1. Testing of the family showed that the boy's siblings were unaffected but that his cousin III-5, whose mother II-4 presumably also had the condition, was positive for the gene. This cousin, although still healthy, would need careful medical monitoring of her condition. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is inherited as an autosomal dominant and like other autosomal dominant diseases does not skip generations and in this case affects both sexes. As this trait is dominant, we know that if a child has the the disease then at least one parent must also have the gene."  (National Genealogy Society)

NOVA

 

Blank Pedigree Charts Generation Pedigree
  The Hunt for mtDNA

 

DNA Technology

Circular Plasmid

Circular Plasmid

Linear Plasmid

Linear Plasmid

 

Electrophoresis

Plasmid Insertion

Gel Electrophoresis Technique  

 Artificially Acquired Immunity

 

Active Immunity Passive Immunity
Antigens (weakened, dead, or fragments of microbes) are introduced in vaccines. Preformed antibodies in an immune serum are introduced into the body by injection (e.g. antivenom used to treat snake bites).
The body produces antibodies and specialized lymphocytes. The body does not produce any antibodies.

                             

 

 

Drug Research & Development

AstraZeneca Novartis
  Pfizer
Boehringer Ingelheim Proctor &  Gamble
GlaxoSmithKline Roche
Merck Sanofi Pasteur

 

The Miller-Urey Experiment

Miller-Urey experiment states:  molecules that are the building blocks of living organisms form spontaneously under conditions designed to simulate those of the primitive earth.


Their apparatus consisted of a closed tube connecting two chambers.  The upper chamber contained a mixture of gasses (resembling earth's primitive atmosphere).  Electrodes discharged sparks through this mixture (simulating lighting).  Condensers cooled the gasses causing water droplets to form, which passed into the second heated chamber (the ocean).  Any complex molecules formed in the atmosphere chamber  would be dissolved in these droplets and carried to the ocean chamber, where samples were removed for analysis.
Miller and Urey found that within a week, 15% of the carbon originally present as methane gas had converted into other simple carbon compounds.  These compounds then combined to form simple molecules and more complex molecules containing carbon-carbon bonds, including the amino acids glycine and alanine.  Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and proteins are one of the major kinds of molecules of which organisms are composed.  Their experiment was designed to prove that the key molecules of life could have formed in the atmosphere of the early earth.

 

 

 

Biology and Evolutionary Theory  
Ecology Miller-Urey Experiment
Evolution & Faith Natural Selection
Limnology Understanding Evolution

 

                         Geologic Time Scale

 

Carbon Dating

 

sea star Classification, or taxonomy, is a system of categorizing living things. There are seven divisions in the system:
bullet Kingdom
bullet Phylum or Division
bullet Class
bullet Order
bullet Family
bullet Genus
bullet Species
 

Kingdom is the broadest division. There is no agreement about the number of kingdoms, but most scientists support a four-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Monera) or five-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, and Fungi) system. Now technology has progressed and other scientists have developed the six-kingdom model (as seen below) which is currently being published in new biology textbooks.

For our purposes we will use the five-kingdom system  which combines the kingdom Eubacteria and Archaebacteria as simply Monera.  But, as scientists, know both systems.

It is true most known prokaryotes are bacteria, however,  scientists have recent knowledge that prokaryotic life is represented by two more distinct domains.  I have included the diversity between these two domains but we will not divide the two in this course.

 

Classification of Living Things

DOMAIN

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

KINGDOM

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Fungi

Plantae

Animalia

CELL TYPE

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

CELL STRUCTURES

Cell walls with peptidoglycan

Cell walls without peptidoglycan

Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts

Cell walls of chitin

Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts

No cell walls or chloroplasts

NUMBER OF CELLS

Unicellular

Unicellular

Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular

Most multicellular; some unicellular

Multicellular

Multicellular

MEMBRANE LIPIDS Unbranched hydrocarbons Some branched hydrocarbons Unbranched hydrocarbons Unbranched hydrocarbons Unbranched hydrocarbons Unbranched hydrocarbons
RNA POLYMERASE one kind several kinds several kinds several kinds several kinds several kinds
INITIATOR AMINO ACID PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Formylmethionine Methinonine Methinonine Methinonine Methinonine Methinonine
INTRONS (NONCODING FOR GENE PARTS) Absent Present in some genes Present Present Present Present
HISTONES ASSOCIATED WITH DNA Absent Present Present Present Present Present
RESPONSE TO ANTIBOTICS Growth inhibited Growth NOT inhibited Growth NOT inhibited Growth NOT inhibited Growth NOT inhibited Growth NOT inhibited

MODE OF NUTRITION

Autotroph or heterotroph

Autotroph or heterotroph

Autotroph or heterotroph

Heterotroph

Autotroph

Heterotroph

ABILITY TO GROW AT TEMP. >100o C No Some species No No No No

EXAMPLES

Streptococcus, Escherichia coli

Methanogens, halophiles

Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp

Mushrooms, yeasts

Mosses, ferns, flowering plants

Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals

The lowest, most basic division is species, which consists of organisms that resemble each other and are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. The system scientists use to name species is called binomial nomenclature. It is done by putting together a creature's genus name and species name. The first is the genus, the second is the species.

Animalia


The first word (Genus) is always capitalized, the second word (species) is not, and both should be italicized. For instance, humans are referred to as Homo sapiens, bearded dragons are referred to as Pogona vitticeps, and corn snakes are referred to as Pantherophis guttatus (formerly Elaphe guttata).

 

Classification of Four Organisms

 

Corn

Whale

Shark

Humpback Whale

Spider Monkey

Kingdom

Plantae

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Phylum

Anthophyta

Chordata

Chordata

Chordata

Class

Monocotyledones

Chondrichthyes

Mammalia

Mammalia

Order

Commelinales

Squaliformes

Cetacea

Primates

Family

Poaceae

Rhincodontidae

Balaenopteridae

Atelidae

Genus

Zea

Rhincodon

Megaptera

Ateles

Species

Zea mays

Rhinacodon typus

Megaptera novaeangilae

Ateles paniscus

 

 

Plantae

Check out the spikes on this tree

 

Bird of Paradise

Bird of Paradise

Comparison of Mammalian and Plant transport Systems


S-Cool

                                                                                                                (S-Cool, 2000)

 

Angiosperm Evolution Plants Database
Biology4Kids:Plants  
Flowering Plant Diversity Roots
Leaf Anatomy UV & Angiosperms

  

Invertebrate & Vertebrate Survey

 

Invertebrates:

Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms

Mollusks and Annelids

Arthropods

Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

 

Vertebrates:

Fish and Amphibians

Reptiles and Birds

Mammals

Humans

 

Animal Kingdom Marine Science
Animal Diversity Web National Zoo
  Nudibrach
Biology of Arthropods Phyla

Diversity of Life

Phylogenetic Tree
Earthworm Review Pond Life ID
Invertebrates & Vertebrates *Species
Marine Laboratories Vertebrate Hearts

 

 

Ornithology

The study of birds

 

All About Birds

Life of Birds
Chickscope  
Cornell Lab Scrub Jay (Florida)

 

Interesting Facts:

Mark Catesby was the famous Naturalist (America’s first natural scientist) in Williamsburg, VA in the 1700s, whom I (Mrs. King) am privileged to be related. He was the brother of Elizabeth Catesby Cocke, my ancestor who was married to Dr. William Cocke, a prominent physician and Secretary of State under Gov. Spotswood. They all lived in Williamsburg, VA during the 18th century.  I have my sister, Dr. Patricia L. Petitt, to thank for her diligent work in our family's genealogy who supplied me with this information.

"English naturalist Mark Catesby (1683-1749) is considered by many to be the founder of American ornithology. Catesby made two expeditions to the southern part of colonial America in the first half of the eighteenth The Colonial Naturalist century. Based on his observations and collections, he published The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, which stood for more than a century as the primary natural history of British North America. His images of flora and fauna influenced the style of later artists, notably John Abbot and John James Audubon" (Morris Museum of Art, 2004).

 

Mark Catesby Exhibit  2
Bibliography National Gallery of Art
  Story of Mark Catesby

Metamorphosis

 

Photo by Mrs. King 2005

 

Types of Metamorphosis

Complete & Incomplete

 
Insects Metamorphosis
Insect Facts  



Dissection

Dissection is a process used in science class to help the student understand structure and function of plants & animals organs.

Dissections in our class are performed with extreme care, using virtual labs when at all possible.

 

Annelid Dissection

 

 

Earthworm Disssection

 

 

 

Squid Dissection

Class - Cephalopoda

http://wwwbio200.nsm.buffalo.edu/labs/tutor/Squid/

Images Virtual Dissection
   

 

Starfish Dissection

Phylum - ECHINODERMATA

Class - Asteroidea

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/Table_of_Contents/Lab-8b/Starfish_Model/starfish_model.htm

  Virtual Dissection
   

 

Clam Dissection

Class: Pelecypoda

Mollusk Data

Kingdom Animalia

Subkingdom Eumetazoa - mollusks have organs

Branch Bilateria - they have bilateral symmetry

Grade Coelamata - they have body cavities

Subgrade Schizocoela - the mesoderm pouches to form that body cavity

Class Polyplacophora - "bearer of many plates"

Class Pelecypoda - "hatchet footed"

Class Gastropoda - "stomach footed"

Class Cephalopoda - "head footed"

 

  Virtual Dissection
   

 

Crayfish Dissection

AN02014_.wmf (10132 bytes)

 

Images Penn State Dissection Protocol
Lab Images Virtual Lab animation

 

Frog Dissection

Frogs belong to the class Amphibia, which means "double life."

The 3 orders that make up that class are

bullet

Caudata (salamander and newts)

bullet

Anura (frogs and toads)

bullet

Apoda (legless caecilians)

Bull Frog

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Family Ranidae
Genus Rana
Species catesbeiana

http://www.biologycorner.com/bio3/images/artery-labeled.gif

Deformed Frogs

Frog Dissection and II

Diversity

Lab Photos - External & Internal

Global Amphibian

PowerPoint

 

Spiny Dogfish

Squalus acanthias

 

Dissection Images Sharks & Rays
  Virtual Lab
   

 

Cat Dissection

Day 2 Day 2 Internal Organ Investigation

Cat Intestines Dom with skeletal remains

AP Biology Students

 

Anatomically Correct

Virtual Cat Dissection
   

 

 

Fetal Pig Dissection

Anatomy  
Dissection Technique Pig Dissection
Photos Virtual Pig Dissection

 

Brain Dissection

Click for larger image 

Dolphin Brain Neroanatomy
Human Brain  

 

Dragon Anatomy

Internal & External

bullet

Kingdom: Animalia

bullet

Subkingdom: Metazoa

bullet

Phylum: Chordata

bullet

Subphylum: Vertebrata

bullet

Class: Reptilia

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Order: Squamata

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Family: Agamidae

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Genus: Pogona

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Species: vitticeps

 

Juvenile Bearded Dragon, Photo by Mrs. King '05

*Dissection & photos by Mrs. King

Antioxidant Enzymes Neurons in Retina
Dissection photos*  
Muscle Mechanics Prey Capture Kinematics

 

Last modified: July 16, 2014