Biology is the study of all living things.
Lemur at Animal Kingdom, Orlando, FL
Watch Promo Clip of "Planet Earth"
First... The Basics
Writing in Science
Because society relies heavily on written expression and printed material, it is important for you to posses effective writing skills. You will be expected to:
2. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.
3. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.
Photosynthesis and Respiration
NAD, FAD and ATP are all
involved in the Krebs Cycle- a process for energy and metabolism.
encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins
This process can be divided into two parts:
The invention of the microscope has allowed us to investigate a whole new world of tiny objects.
Microscopes magnify and resolve, which tend to be mistaken as the same but are two very different things.
Recording Field of View
Orientation of sections for the study of wood anatomy.
(A) Transverse; (B) longitudinal; (C) tangential.
In Meiosis I, chromosomes in a diploid cell re-segregate, producing four haploid daughter cells. It is this step in Meiosis that generates genetic diversity.
Meiosis II is similar to mitosis. However, there is no "S" phase. The chromatids of each chromosome are no longer identical because of recombination. Meiosis II separates the chromatids producing two daughter cells each with 23 chromosomes (haploid), and each chromosome has only one chromatid.
Major differences between mitosis and meiosis
1. Number of
cell divisions and products.
2. Ploidy (# chromosome sets) per nucleus.
3. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes.
4. Exchange of genetic material between
synapsed homologous chromosomes.
5. Timing of division of centromeres.
6. Genetic variation.
Among the first scientists to recognize
living things have changed over time
all species were descended from other species
He also recognized organisms were somehow adapted to their environments
Father of Evolutionary Biology
1809 - 1882
Evolution: Great Transformations
Father of Genetics
1822 - 1884
Mendel did his research on the garden pea because it was easy to breed, quick turn around, and it was easy to see the changes in generations. Mendel's work went unnoticed for many years until 3 scientists came across his work in the early 1900's. At that time Mendel was given the name "Father of Genetics" for his major contribution to the field of genetics.
See Genetics Page
(formally known as: Elaphe guttata)
Turning genes on and off
This is how we trace inherited traits
"When boy III-1 (outlined in blue) died suddenly at a football game at the age of 19, his mother II-2, brother and sisters, friends and doctors were confused. An autopsy showed that the young athelete had died from familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), an inherited disease of the heart muscle. On doing the pedigree, the dead boys father II-1 had died of heart failure at an early age as had his aunt II-4 and paternal grandfather I-1. Testing of the family showed that the boy's siblings were unaffected but that his cousin III-5, whose mother II-4 presumably also had the condition, was positive for the gene. This cousin, although still healthy, would need careful medical monitoring of her condition. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is inherited as an autosomal dominant and like other autosomal dominant diseases does not skip generations and in this case affects both sexes. As this trait is dominant, we know that if a child has the the disease then at least one parent must also have the gene." (National Genealogy Society)
Artificially Acquired Immunity
Drug Research & Development
The Miller-Urey Experiment
Miller-Urey experiment states: molecules that are the building blocks of living organisms form spontaneously under conditions designed to simulate those of the primitive earth.
Classification, or taxonomy, is a system of categorizing living things. There are seven divisions in the system:
Kingdom is the broadest division. There is no agreement about the number of kingdoms, but most scientists support a four-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Monera) or five-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, and Fungi) system. Now technology has progressed and other scientists have developed the six-kingdom model (as seen below) which is currently being published in new biology textbooks.
For our purposes we will use the five-kingdom system which combines the kingdom Eubacteria and Archaebacteria as simply Monera. But, as scientists, know both systems.
It is true most known prokaryotes are bacteria, however, scientists have recent knowledge that prokaryotic life is represented by two more distinct domains. I have included the diversity between these two domains but we will not divide the two in this course.
The lowest, most basic division is species, which consists of organisms that resemble each other and are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. The system scientists use to name species is called binomial nomenclature. It is done by putting together a creature's genus name and species name. The first is the genus, the second is the species.
Check out the spikes on this tree
Comparison of Mammalian and Plant transport Systems
Invertebrate & Vertebrate Survey
Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms
Mollusks and Annelids
Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Fish and Amphibians
Reptiles and Birds
The study of birds
Mark Catesby was the famous Naturalist (America’s first natural scientist) in Williamsburg, VA in the 1700s, whom I (Mrs. King) am privileged to be related. He was the brother of Elizabeth Catesby Cocke, my ancestor who was married to Dr. William Cocke, a prominent physician and Secretary of State under Gov. Spotswood. They all lived in Williamsburg, VA during the 18th century. I have my sister, Dr. Patricia L. Petitt, to thank for her diligent work in our family's genealogy who supplied me with this information.
"English naturalist Mark Catesby (1683-1749) is considered by many to be the founder of American ornithology. Catesby made two expeditions to the southern part of colonial America in the first half of the eighteenth century. Based on his observations and collections, he published The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, which stood for more than a century as the primary natural history of British North America. His images of flora and fauna influenced the style of later artists, notably John Abbot and John James Audubon" (Morris Museum of Art, 2004).
Types of Metamorphosis
Complete & Incomplete
Dissection is a process used in science class to help the student understand structure and function of plants & animals organs.
Dissections in our class are performed with extreme care, using virtual labs when at all possible.
Class - Cephalopoda
Phylum - ECHINODERMATA
Class - Asteroidea
Subkingdom Eumetazoa - mollusks have organs
Branch Bilateria - they have bilateral symmetry
Grade Coelamata - they have body cavities
Subgrade Schizocoela - the mesoderm pouches to form that body cavity
Class Polyplacophora - "bearer of many plates"
Class Pelecypoda - "hatchet footed"
Class Gastropoda - "stomach footed"
Class Cephalopoda - "head footed"
Frogs belong to the class Amphibia, which means "double life."
The 3 orders that make up that class are
AP Biology Students
Fetal Pig Dissection
*Dissection & photos by Mrs. King
Last modified: December 25, 2013