Integrated Science is our accumulated
understanding of the natural world.
Scroll down the page to review topics taught in class throughout the year
Modern science deals only with physical quantities,
which we can express in quantitative rather than qualitative terms.
Laws are generalizations, principles, or patterns in the natural world. Theories are explanations of those generalizations.
Laws are discovered. Theories are developed.
Scientists in History
by Eric Weisstein
Though the study of science and the natural world goes back to pre-history, its tradition of scientific processes and methods were first introduced in the late 1500's by Galileo.
Measurement in Science
All measurements in Science need to be METRIC
Graphing in Science
You are expected to graph in science to show your results. Make sure you understand the basics of graphing line graphs, lines of best fit, scatter plots, and spread sheets.
You will need to know the difference between the independent variable and dependent variable and label your graph properly.
Some Common Temperatures
to the nearest whole degree
*Remember, there is no such thing as negative in the Kelvin scale or °K, it's just K.
Kelvin scale begins at absolute zero, (-273.15oC).
Absolute Zero is the coldest temperature, that means it's the temperature at which molecules (of any substance) have no more kinetic energy they can give up.
Converting Temperature Scales
•Celsius to Fahrenheit
•F= (9/5 x C) + 32
•Fahrenheit to Celsius
•C = 5/9(F-32)
•Celsius to Kelvin
•K = C+ 273
Matter, Energy and the Chemical Processes of Life
Strand A: The Nature of Matter
See General Chemistry page
Conservation of Mass Lab
The law of conservation of mass states that energy is not be created or destroyed, it only changes form. The students above are experimenting to test this law.
Testing for organic compounds in foods
Mole Day Project
6.02 x 1023
Alpha & Beta Particles
Nuclear/ Radioactive Decay & Half-life
Nuclear Fission & Fusion
Strand C: Force and Motion
See the Physical Science page.
This is also where kinematics comes into play. Kinematics is the science of describing the motion of objects using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs, and equations. One dimensional means in motion in a straight line. Therefore, when we talk about one dimensional kinematics, we will use graphs on a x-axis. Motion can be forward or backward.
Mouse Trap Cars
Levers & Pulleys
Work, Energy and Power
Strand B: Energy
Work is measured in Joules
work = force x distance W = F x d
Power is measured in watts
power = work/time P = W/t
Roller Coaster Physics
PE = mgh
where m = mass, g = acceleration due to freefall(9.8 m/s2) and h = height
KE = 1/2mv2,
Stand B: Energy
electromagnetic energy (electromagnetic radiation) is energy that moves through space or a material as a wave. Electromagnetic energy includes light, radio waves, infrared radiation, and x-rays. Electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light, or 300,000 kilometers per second (186,000 miles per second).
Speed of Light in Vacuum: 3x10x8 m/s, 186,000
Frequency is the property of a wave that describes how many wave patterns or cycles pass by in a period of time. Frequency is often measured in Hertz (Hz), where a wave with a frequency of 1 Hz will pass by at 1 cycle per second.
Acronyms, like ROY G BIV, help us to remember the spectrum in order.
700 nm 400nm
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet
The rainbow is really a continuous spectrum that shows us the different energies of light (from red to blue) present in visible light. But the electromagnetic spectrum encompasses more than just optical light - it covers all energies of light extending from low-energy radio waves, to microwaves, to infrared, to optical light, to ultraviolet, to very high-energy X- and gamma-rays.
White light is the combination of red, blue and green light. As seen in the image above, adding different combinations of light, like red and blue to make magenta, will display varied frequencies of the light spectrum.
Plants respond differently to frequencies (or colors) of light. This is why we use a plant grow light in the classroom terrarium.
Let's put this light thing into perspective using optics.
By combining red, blue and green light in certain ways we can perfectly simulate any color the human eye can see. The colors you see on this computer screen is an example of how video equipment leverages the color combinations. Most video equipment offers 256 intensities each of red, green & blue (RGB) light. By altering the intensity of red, blue or green light would provide you with over 16 million combinations... way more colors than you can see with your own eyes.
More coming soon
Doppler Effect & Sound Waves
Electricity & Magnetism
Pushing & Pulling Forces of an Electric Field
Types of Electric Cells
V = I R
Voltage = Current x Resistance
When two bulbs are connected in series charges must pass through both light bulbs to complete the circuit.
When devices are connected in parallel, charges have more than one path to follow. The circuit can be complete even if one light bulb burns out.
A naturally occurring magnetic rock, composed of iron based material called magnetite.
An electric current can be produced
in a circuit by a changing magnetic field.
Earth's Geologic Time
The Rock Cycle
Courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America
Rocks & Minerals
Testing Physical Properties
Design and build a bridge that can withstand an earthquake
Maps in Science
The Solar System
Strand E: Earth and Space
The words solar system refer to the Sun and all of the objects that travel around it. This includes planets, natural satellites like the Moon, the asteroid belt, comets, and meteoroids.
The Sun is the center of the solar system. It contains 99.86% of all of the mass in our solar system. Consequently, it exerts a tremendous gravitational pull on planets, satellites, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids.
Visit the page dedicated to our solar system.
Alien Invasion Project
Newton's 3rd Law
Rocket Car Lab
Strand F: The Processes of Life
Strand G: How Living Things Interact With Their Environment
Comparing independent and dependent variables to find cause and effect patterns
Strand H: The Nature of Science
Classification, or taxonomy, is a system of categorizing living things. There are seven divisions in the system:
Kingdom is the broadest division. There is no agreement about the number of kingdoms, but most scientists support either a four-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Monera) or five-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, and Fungi) system. For our purposes, we will use the five-kingdom system.
See Biology page for more Taxonomy Information.
Barn Owl Tytonidae tyto alba
Owls are Birds of Prey, which means that they must kill other animals to survive. Their diet includes invertebrates (which include insects: spiders, earthworms, snails and crabs), fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and other small mammals such as rats, moles, voles, etc.
Owl pellets are masses of bones, teeth, hair, feathers, scales, and insect skeletons. These materials are blocked from reaching the intestines by the pyloric opening. They are produced and regurgitated, not only by owls, but also by hawks, eagles, and other predatory birds that swallow their prey whole or in large pieces. Because owls swallow their prey whole, each owl pellet contains virtually complete skeletons of the animals the owl ate the day before the pellet was formed. By examining the bones of the animals eaten, the types of animals eaten, and the number of each species, the varied diet of an owl can be determined as well as the ecosystem in which it hunted its prey.
Owl Pellet Dissection
The invention of the microscope has allowed us to investigate a whole new world of tiny objects.
Microscopes magnify and resolve, which are two very different things.
Strand F: Processes of Life
2. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.
3. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.
Inside Cell Outside Cell
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
In Meiosis 1, chromosomes in a diploid cell resegregate, producing four haploid daughter cells. It is this step in Meiosis that generates genetic diversity.
Meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis. However, there is no "S" phase. The chromatids of each chromosome are no longer identical because of recombination. Meiosis II separates the chromatids producing two daughter cells each with 23 chromosomes (haploid), and each chromosome has only one chromatid.
Corn Snake Genetics
Pantherophis guttatus (formally: Elaphe guttata)
Record Keeping in Genetics
Male: BBRr: Br Br br br
Female: BbRR: BR BR bR bR
This dihybrid matrix reveals the F2 from a breeding pair of corn snakes, Pantherophis guttatus.
This Punnett square could be used to find the genetic frequencies for flowers, dogs, etc.
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
We will use two alleles, A and a, with the dominant allele represented by the letter p and the recessive allele by the letter q.
p = the frequency of the dominant allele (represented here by
p2 = frequency of AA (homozygous dominant)
Allele Frequencies = p (A) + q (a) = 1
Genotypic Frequencies = (p+q)2
p2 (AA) + 2pq (2Aa) + q2 (aa) = 1
This law assumes random mating in each generation and no disruption of allele frequencies or genotypic frequencies. If the end result is not 1, there is no equilibrium.
Possible reasons for population diversity (or lack of equilibrium): genetic drift, mutation, migration, and meiotic drive.
S = sum of
Df = degrees of freedom
c2 = Chi Square